Punjab also spelt Panjab, is an ancient state in northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. To the north it is bounded by the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The state capital is located in Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana.
After the partition of India in 1947, the Punjab province of British India was divided between India and Pakistan. The Indian Punjab was divided in 1966 with the formation of the new states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh alongside the current state of Punjab
Punjab is the only state in India with a majority Sikh population.
The term Punjab comprises two words: "punj meaning five and ab meaning water, thus the land of five rivers."The Greeks referred to Punjab as Pentapotamia, an inland delta of five converging rivers. In Avesta, the sacred text of Zoroastrians, the Punjab region is associated with the ancient hapta həndu or Sapta Sindhu, the Land of Seven Rivers.Historically, the Punjab region has been the gateway to the Indian Subcontinent for most foreign invaders and barbarians such as Afghans, Mughals and Persians.

Punjab is an Indo-Iranian word meaning "the land of five rivers". Punjab lies at the cross-roads of the great civilizations of the world. Historicaly, the area west of Punjab was under the sphere of influence of the Persians, the east was the heartland of the Indian civilization, the south under the influence of the Arabs and the north under the Turko-Mongolian influence. Many great religious movements which found world-wide appeal grew in the fertile plains of Punjab. They include Budhism, Sikhism and many schools of Sufi thought in Islam. This ethnic and religious diversity is reflected in the cultural mosaic of today’s Punjab.
The historical area of Punjab was defined to the east from the basin of the river Bias (including Delhi) to the basin of River Indus in the west. To the north it was bounded by the Himalayas of Kashmir and to the south it stretched as far as the plains of Cholistan and Rajasthan. Over different periods of history Punjab has seen its boundaries expand and shrink. The high time for Punjab was during the reign of Mughal emperor Babur (and also during the time of Ranjit Singh more recently) when Punjab along with Babur's empire stretched from Dehli in the east to Kabul and Ghazni to the West. But never in the history, did the boundaries of Punjab shrink so much as they did after the division of India in 1947. The tragic incident resulted in the division of Punjab into two parts as the Indian state of Punjab and the Pakistani province of Punjab. Indian Punjab was further divided twice for administrative reasons. Today's Punjab (Indian) is about one-fourth of the Punjab that existed before partition.
Punjab suffered the most destruction and damage at the time of Partition of India. Prior to partition the Punjab extended across both sides of what is now the India-Pakistan border and its capital Lahore is now the capital of the Pakistani state of Punjab. The major city in the Punjab is Amritsar, the holy city of the Sikhs. Chandigarh, a new planned city, was conceived and built in the 1950s to serve as the capital of the new Punjab. In 1966, Punjab underwent another split. It was divided into the predominantly Sikh and Punjabi- speaking state of Punjab and the state of Haryana. At the same time some of the northern parts of the Punjab were hived off to Himachal Pradesh. Chandigarh on the border of Punjab and Haryana, remains the capital of the two states, yet is administered as a Union Territory from Delhi.
The Punjab's per capita income is nearly double the all-India average (in second place is Haryana). Although Punjabi's comprise less than 2.5% of India's population, they provide 22% of India's Wheat and 10% of its rice. The Punjab provides a third of all the milk production in India. Punjab also has a number of thriving industries including Hero Bicycles at Ludhiana.
From the traveller’s point of view, the area has just one attraction -the beautiful Golden Temple in Amritsar. Apart from this the states are mainly places of transit for travellers on their way to the Himachal hill stations, Pakistan, and Kashmir

General Information

Languages :   Punjabi, Hindi
When to Visit :   October to March
Climate :   Summer: 45 c to 35c
Winter: 14c to 0c
Monsoon: July to September
Festivals :   Hola Mohalla (March/April),
Baisakhi (April/May),
Holi (February/March).

Places to See in Punjab


The moment you hear Amritsar mentioned, your mind is sure to recall the famous attraction in the land – The Golden temple. This ancient land is home to various shrines and places of historical importance. Here are the top destinations in Amritsar. 

  • Golden Temple
  • Jallianwala Bagh
  • Akal Takht
  • Tara Taran Sahib
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh Panorama
  • Wagah Border
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh Museum
  • Rambagh Garden
  • Summer Palace of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
  • Harike Wetland and Bird Sanctuary
  • Khalsa College
  • Durgiana Temple
  • Bathinda Fort
  • Kaiser Bagh Park


Bhatinda is amongst the ancient cities of Punjab. Some of the monuments found here belong to 3000 BC. Famous for its historical associations, the land was where Guru Gobind Singh challenged and fought the Mughals bravely. Some of the most popular tourist destinations in Bhatinda include:

  • Bhatinda Fort
  • Qila Mubarak
  • Rose Garden
  • Bhatinda Lake
  • Bhatinda Zoological Park
  • Lakhi Jungle
  • Bir Talab Zoo
  • Chetak Park
  • Dhobhi Bazaar


Chandigarh is the capital of both Punjab and Haryana. The city is considered the best planned city in the country. It is called ‘The City Beautiful’ and you will sure agree with it once you visit the beautiful city where modernization has not destroyed the natural treasures of the land. Here are the top destinations in Chandigarh.

  • The Rock Garden
  • Sukhna Lake
  • Leisure Valley
  • Shanti Kunj
  • Morni Hills
  • Chhatbir Zoo
  • Rose Garden
  • Le Corbusier Centre
  • Government Museum and Art Gallery
  • Sarkaria Cactus Garden
  • Timber Trail
  • Butterfly Park
  • Yadvinder Garden
  • Garden of Fragrance
  • Chandigarh Botanical Garden and Nature Park
  • Mahendra Chaudhary Zoological Park
  • Chhatbir Zoo
  • Terraced Garden
  • International Dolls Museum


Jalandhar, the land that boasts of a rich history is also famous for sports goods. This ancient part of the world, which is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata, has some of the most famous sites of historical importance and religious significance. Here are the top attractions in Jalandhar.

  • Imam Nasir Masjid
  • Tulsi Mandir
  • Shaheed-E-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum
  • Wonderland Theme Park
  • Devi Talab Mandir
  • Shiv Mandir
  • St. Mary’s Cathedral Church
  • Pushpa Gujral Science City
  • Company Bagh
  • Niku Park
  • Rangla Punjab Haveli
  • Prithvi’s Planet
  • Sheetla Mandir


Earlier referred to as the ‘Paris of Punjab’,Kapurthala is an excellent city with amazing architecture and breathtaking gardens. It was here that Guru Nanak attained enlightenment in 1499. Historical significance, scenic landscape and spectacular monuments make this place a unique destination. Given below are some of the important tourist attractions in Kapurthala.

  • The Jagatjit Palace
  • Jagatjit Club
  • Elysee Palace
  • Panj Mandir
  • Kanjli Wetland
  • Shalimar Garden
  • Nihal Palace
  • State Gurudwara
  • Moorish Mosque


Ludhiana is the largest city in the state. It has its share of historical monuments and religious centers. It is situated closer to the banks of river Sutlej. The land had made a significant contribution during freedom fight. Though not in great numbers, the tourist attractions it has cannot be missed on your tour to Punjab. The important places of Ludhiana include:

  • Lodhi Fort
  • Rural Heritage Museum
  • Tiger Zoo
  • Punjab Agricultural University Museum
  • Gurudwara Charan Kamal
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh War Museum
  • Phillaur Fort
  • Nehru Rose Garden
  • Deer Park


Mohali, Chandigarh and Panchkula together are called Tri-city. The city acquired its name after Guru Gobind Singh’s eldest son Sahibzada Ajit Singh and hence is also called as SAS Nagar. While retaining its ancient heritage, Mohali, is also home to a good number of IT industries. The top tourist attractions in Mohali include:

  • Rose Garden
  • Silvi Park
  • Mataur Lake
  • Rock Garden
  • Sukhna Lake
  • Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Gurdwara Amb Sahib
  • Mansa Devi Temple
  • Gurudwara Nada Sahib
  • Punjab Cricket Association Stadium


The geographical location of Pathankot gains importance as it is the meeting point of Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. The scenic beauty of the land and its rich history have made the land a popular tourist destination. Here are some of the leading tourist attractions in the city.

  • Mukteshwar Temple
  • Ashapurni Mandir
  • Kathgarh Temple
  • Nurpur Fort
  • Ranjit Sagar Dam
  • Hydraulic Research Station
  • Shahpurkandi Fort
  • Kali Mata Ka Mandir


The erstwhile princely state, Patiala, is famously referred to as the ‘City of newspapers’. The city has some of the best architecture that reflects the glorious past of the land. It is a blend of Rajput, Punjabi and Mughal cultures. Given below are the top attractions in Patiala.

  • Qila Mubarak Complex
  • Moti Bagh Palace
  • Banur
  • Samana
  • Baradari Garden
  • Sheesh Mahal
  • Darbar Hall
  • Bir Moti Bagh Sanctuary
  • Lachman Jhoola
  • Kali Temple


Ropar, also known as Rupnagar, is yet another ancient town in Punjab. Archaeological evidences show that the place belonged to the era of Harappan civilization. Ropar also happens to be the first Harappan site to be excavated in independent India. The top destinations in Ropar include:

  • Anandpur Sahib
  • Chamkaur Sahib
  • Bhakra Nangal Dam
  • Ropar Wetland
  • Gurudwara Parivar Vichhora Sahib
  • Gurudwara Bhatta Sahib
  • Jateshwar Mahadev Temple